Graduate Offices, herring Hall Second Floor course requirements Assigned readings; supplemental readings as necessary participation in discussions take home assignments (mainly exercises in semantic description) take-home final paper(semantic description and essay; open book) Total number of assignments is most likely 5, each containing one problem. They will be time-consuming! Good ones tend to take anywhere from 4-10 hours of thought and writing. So don't leave them until the night before. The honor code policy will be posted with each assignment. It will be specified what materials can be used (e.g. Use of dictionary or not) and what level of collaboration is possible for a given assignment. Assignments Assignments will be posted as we get to them.
Assignment definition and meaning collins English Dictionary
Ongoing issues throughout the course: Representations: How do we represent analyses descriptively; What kinds of mental representations should we postulate; What kinds of data can we use? What advantages and disadvantages do they have? Relation of linguistic and cognitive categories; Cognitive prerequisites for wimpy language; Acquisition of linguistic and other categories (1st and 2nd language). Cross-linguistic generalization and variation (universal. Language specific categories what is the nature adulteration of mind (modular; connectionist; preexisting. text, course textbook: david lee, cognitive linguistics: An Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2001. Other readings as needed to be made available, either handed out or placed on electronic reserve. Office hours Monica sanaphre Thursdays 3-4:00. Exceptionally) Martin Hilpert tuesdays 4-5:00.
Some questions we will deal with are: What is linguistic meaning? What kinds of basic elements do we need to make reference to in characterizing the meanings of words or other linguistic units? What kinds of data are relevant, and how do we evaluate the various possible types of data? What are some fundamental properties of particular meaning systems in human languages, and what is the range of variation found in the expression of these systems in various languages? How do word meanings change over time and what implications does this have for theories of lexical meaning? How does linguistic meaning relate to the human conceptual apparatus? Theoretical topics covered include categorization; construal; acquisition of concepts; metaphor; blending; metonymy; compositionality; mental assignments spaces; lexical semantic change. Various semantic domains will be examined in connection with these topics,. Color terms, kinship, dimensional terms, verb meaning; but two domains will be treated in depth from various perspectives: the semantics of everyday concepts, and the semantics of space and motion.
Late 14c., "order, request, directive from resume Old French assignement legal) assignment (of dower, etc. from Late latin assignamentum, noun of action from Latin assignare (see assign ). Meaning "appointment to office" is mid-15c.; that of "a task assigned" (to someone) is from.1848. Semantics: course Information Sheet, linguistics/Psychology 315/515, prof. Course Information Sheet, spring 2004, class meetings: TTh 1:00-2:15, herring Hall 125, instructor contact: Office, herring Hall 209; Tel., (348)-6225, email, office hours: TTh 10:50-12:00 and by appointment. The aim of this course is to introduce some basic approaches to the study of meaning in Linguistics and related fields (primarily. Cognitive science and Psychology). The primary focus will be on word meaning (lexical semantics although sentential semantics and pragmatics will be introduced time permitting. The general drinking theme running through the course is how best to describe meaning in human language.
But, if the copy construction does throw, notice how the state of *this has not changed, meaning that in the face of an exception, we can guarantee that *this is still coherent, and furthermore, we can even say that it is left unchanged. But, you say, what about std:swap? Could it not throw? The default std:swap, defined in algorithm can throw, since std:swap looks like this: template typename t swap( t one, t two ) t tmp( one one two; two tmp; The first line runs the copy constructor of t, which can throw; the remaining lines are. However, if you have a type t for which the default std:swap may result in either T's copy constructor or assignment operator throwing, you are politely required to provide a swap overload for your type that does not throw. Since swap cannot return failure, and you are not allowed to throw, your swap overload must always succeed. By requiring that swap does not throw, the above operator is thus exception safe: either the object is completely copied successfully, or the left-hand side is left unchanged. Now you'll notice that our implementation of operator makes a temporary copy as its first line of code. Since we have to make a copy, we might as well let the compiler do that for us automatically, so we can change the signature of the function to take the right-hand side by value (ie, a copy) rather than by reference, and this allows.
Assignment - definition of assignment by The Free dictionary
Clearly this instance will lie about the number of elements it contains if we call count at this point. But clearly it was never the intent of myarray's programmer to have count give a wrong answer. Worse yet, there could be other member functions that rely more heavily (even to the point of crashing) on numElements being correct. Yikes - this instance is clearly a timebomb waiting to go off. This implementation of operator is not exception safe: if an exception is thrown during execution of the function, there is no telling what the state of the object is; we can only assume that it is in such a bad state (ie, it violates some. If the object is in a bad state, it might not even be possible to destroy the object without crashing the program or causing myarray to perhaps throw another exception.
And we know that the compiler the runs destructors while unwinding the stack to search for a handler. If an exception is thrown while unwinding the stack, the program necessarily and unstoppably terminates. How do i write an exception safe assignment operator? The recommended way to write an exception safe assignment operator is via the copy-swap idiom. What is the copy-swap idiom? Simply put, it is a two- step algorithm: first make a copy, then swap with the copy. Here is our exception safe version of operator: template myarray t :operator( const myarray rhs ) / First, make a copy of the right-hand side myarray tmp( rhs / Now, swap the data members with the temporary: std:swap( numElements, mElements std:swap( pElements, lements return *this;.
This class wraps an array of some user-specified type. It has two data members: a pointer to the array and a number of elements in the array. Template typename t class myarray size_t numElements; T* pElements; public: size_t count const return numElements; myarray operator( const myarray rhs ; Now, assignment of one myarray to another is easy, right? Template myarray t :operator( const myarray rhs ) if( this! rhs ) delete pElements; pElements new T mElements ; for( size_t i 0; i mElements; i ) pElements i lements i ; numElements mElements; return *this; well, not so fast.
The problem is, the line pElements i lements i ; could throw an exception. This line invokes operator for type t, which could be some user-defined type whose assignment operator might throw an exception, perhaps an out-of-memory (std:bad_alloc) exception or some other exception that the programmer of the user-defined type created. What would happen if it did throw, say on copying the 3rd element of 10 total? Well, the stack is unwound until an appropriate handler is found. Meanwhile, what is the state of our object? Well, we've reallocated our array to hold 10 T's, but we've copied only 2 of them successfully. The third one failed midway, and the remaining seven were never even attempted to be copied. Furthermore, we haven't even changed numElements, so whatever it held before, it still holds.
Assignment - dictionary definition
First, you should understand that if you do not declare an assignment operator, the vertebrae compiler gives you one implicitly. The implicit assignment operator does member-wise assignment of each data member from the source object. For example, using the class above, the compiler-provided assignment operator is exactly equivalent to: myclass myclass:operator( const myclass other ) x other. S; return *this; In general, any time you need to write your own custom copy constructor, you also need to write a custom assignment operator. What is meant by Exception Safe code? A little interlude to talk about exception safety, because programmers often misunderstand exception handling to be exception safety. A function which modifies some "global" state (for example, a reference parameter, or a member function that modifies the data members of its instance) is said to be exception safe if it leaves the global state well-defined in the event of an exception that. What does this really mean? Well, let's take a rather contrived (and trite) example.
What is an assignment operator? The assignment operator for a class is what allows you to use to assign one instance to another. For example: 1 2 myclass c1, c2; c1 c2; / assigns c2 to c1 There are actually several different signatures that an assignment operator can have: (1) myclass operator( const myclass rhs (2) myclass operator( myclass rhs (3) myclass operator( myclass rhs (4) const myclass. While the return type may not be too important, choice of the parameter type is critical. (2 (5 and (8) pass the right-hand side by non-const reference, and is not recommended. The problem with these signatures is that the following code would not compile: 1 2 myclass c1; c1 myclass( 5, 'a "Hello world" / assuming this constructor exists This is because the right-hand side of this assignment expression is a temporary (un-named) object, and the. This leaves us with passing the right-hand side either by value or by const reference. Although it would seem that passing by const reference is more efficient than passing by value, we will see later that for reasons of exception safety, making a temporary copy of the source object is unavoidable, pollution and therefore passing by value allows us to write. When do i need to write an assignment operator?
in the c standard that says that non-const references cannot bind to temporary objects. A temporary object is an instance of an object that does not have a variable name. For example: std:string( "Hello world" is a temporary, because we have not given it a variable name. This is not a temporary: std:string s( "Hello world" because the object's name. What is the practical implication of all this? Consider the following: / Improperly declared function: parameter should be const reference: void print_me_bad( std:string s ) std:cout s std:endl; / Properly declared function: function has no intent to modify s: void print_me_good( const std:string s ) std:cout s std:endl; std:string hello( "Hello" print_me_bad( hello. Typically, this means that you need to have the copy constructor that takes a const reference, for the above reasons.
However, there are certain circumstances where the member-wise copy version is not good enough. By far, the most common reason the default copy constructor is not sufficient is because the object contains raw pointers and you need to take a "deep" copy of the pointer. That is, you don't want to copy the pointer itself; rather you want to copy what the pointer points. Why do you need to take "deep" copies? This is typically student because the instance owns the pointer; that is, the instance is responsible for calling delete on the pointer at some point (probably the destructor). If two objects end up calling delete on the same non-null pointer, heap corruption results. Rarely you will come across a class that does not contain raw pointers yet the default copy constructor is not sufficient. An example of this is when you have a reference-counted object. Const correctness When passing parameters by reference to functions or constructors, be very careful about const correctness.
Assignment (noun) definition and synonyms macmillan Dictionary
What is a copy constructor? A copy constructor is a special constructor for a class/struct that is used to make a copy of an existing instance. According to the c standard, the copy constructor for myclass must have one of the following signatures: 1 2 3 4, myClass( const myclass other myclass( myclass other myclass( volatile const myclass other myclass( volatile myclass other note that none of the following constructors, despite. First, you should understand that if you do not declare a copy constructor, the compiler gives you one implicitly. The implicit copy constructor does a member-wise copy of the source object. For example, given the class: class myclass int x; char c; std:string s; ; the compiler-provided copy constructor is exactly equivalent to: 1 2 3, myClass:MyClass( const myclass other ) : water x( other. In many cases, this is sufficient.