After a vicious battle, voters approved a bond measure in 1930, and construction began in 1933. If the party following the bay bridges completion in 1936 was a 10 on a scale of 1 to 10, then the golden Gate Bridge fiesta in 1937 was.5. The Chronicles front page was nothing but an enormous photo of the bridge looking down from one of the spans, with a small headline: a steel Knife Unsheathed by the city Splits the sky. Inside, the gravity of the moment tested the best of The Chronicles metaphor reserves. The dawn came up with thunder from the bosom of the bay, chronicle columnist Floyd healey wrote. It broke like fiery jewels in a vast concourse of light. The newspapers Abe mellinkoff added this: like ants swarming a sticky sugar bowl, uncounted thousands milled and counter milled through the marina district, along the bridge approaches and on the bridge itself.
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But there was much red tape to navigate, and at times it seemed like the Chronicle and City hall against the world. Chief among the protesters was essayist Katherine fullerton-Gerould, who wrote in a 1924 Harpers Magazine issue that a bridge connecting San Francisco and Marin counties would be essay a nightmare. When you have one of the most romantic approaches in all geography, why spoil it? Fullerton-Gerould wrote, in an editorial reprinted in The Chronicle. In the interest of your own uniqueness, dear San Francisco, do not bridge the golden Gate. Leave that kind of gesture to los Angeles — which, if it had a golden Gate, would most certainly bridge it, and sink oil wells in the bay and ocean on either side. As late as the mid-1920s, the war Department writing said a bridge over the bay could never be built; among other things, officials were worried that the bridge could be targeted by enemies, collapse and trap the fleet inside the bay. Southern Pacific railroad, which owned the ferries, sued the project. Finally, there were the Shipowners Association of the pacific coast and the pacific American Steamship Association, which suggested that the bridge might actually harm tourism. What will it profit San Francisco to have a bridge with tall towers to point out to tourists, if word gets round the world that here is a harbor that great ships cannot enter? One anti-bridge advertisement read.
For both the bay bridge and Golden Gate, cars with more than four passengers were changed a nickel for each extra rider. In the early months of bay bridge toll-collecting, drivers without fare were forced to pawn items from their car, rainbow including watches, cufflinks and spare tires. One man offered to leave his wife in pawn until he got the bridge fare, the Chronicle reported in 1937. The offer was rejected. The golden Gate Bridge arrived later, and was the more controversial project. Surveys for a golden Gate Bridge began as early as 1918, and by the early 1920s, The Chronicle had launched what amounts to a pro-bridge, anti-ferry propaganda campaign called do you realize that. Do you realize that There are some other people worth knowing on the other side of the bay? One editorial advertisement read. We might have an opportunity to meet them if we had a bridge or a tunnel?
Some revelers idled in din gridlock for eight hours for a chance to cross the bay bridge on the first day — and declared it worth the wait. Some amusing side notes from the first days of the first large bridge in San Francisco. Frank merriam and his police escort were supposed to be the first to cross the bay bridge, but were upstaged by some clueless tourists from Nebraska. William Acklie of Norfolk slipped through a side entrance, and made the first crossing from San Francisco to oakland, leaving the governor and a second car of radio men (including a young Herb caen) in their dust. tollbooth heists were a huge worry in the early days of the bay bridge. Bulletproof Plexiglas was installed, and a team of toll-takers volunteered for months of pistol training so they could guard against would-be robbers. Early bridge tolls actually punished carpoolers.
Former President Herbert hoover was on hand for the dedication, also speaking in superlatives. This marks the physical beginning of the greatest bridge yet erected by the human race, hoover said. But it is more than a bridge. It marks the consummation of the unity of effort on the part of citizens of the municipalities, the State and the federal government, which is the genius of our countrymen. The Chronicle described a crowd of more than a million packing San Francisco for the bay bridge opening day party, a swirling torrent of humanity that continued for days. Telegraph Hill was reportedly so covered in humanity, that from a distance you couldnt see the cliffs. School was canceled, and the entire region enjoyed several fireworks displays and a floating light show courtesy of military ships.
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A subsequent drawing went too far in the diet other direction, with Corinthian columns painted gold, and garish lights on top. But the final plans were just right — an Art Deco masterpiece that served as a timeless architecture and engineering triumph, a functional span, and possibly the greatest tourism magnet ever built. A necklace of surpassing beauty was placed day on the lovely throat of San Francisco yesterday, the Chronicles Willis OBrien wrote on opening day in 1937. It is the golden Gate Bridge. It is the bridge that sings. The golden Gate Bridge, which celebrates its 78th birthday on Wednesday, was completed to rave reviews that havent stopped. But like every bridge plan in San Francisco history, it was an excruciating process filled with bitter fighting, accusations of fraud and much unintentional humor.
In a city where nothing involving politics happens easily, san Franciscos bridges may be its greatest accomplishments. The bay bridge, predicted 60 years earlier by Emperor Norton (I command here a bridge! was the first major bridge in San Francisco by six months. (Shorter bridges over the channel at Third and fourth streets in China basin preceded the bay bridge by decades.) overshadowed in subsequent years by its more famous sibling to the northwest, the bay bridge received a monumental welcome that has been largely forgotten. The entire state was combed for enough scrap iron to complete the bay bridge project — 152,000 tons of steel was used — and Franklin Delano roosevelt called it the biggest construction project.
San Francisco bay, san Francisco bay tides and Currents from the national Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (grades 3 to adult). Find out about the water level, current speed and direction, temperature, and salinity underneath the golden Gate Bridge during the most recent 24 hour period. Bay model Visitor Center (all ages the bay model Visitor Center in sausalito is a fully accessible education center administered by the. Army corps of Engineers that houses a three-dimensional working hydraulic model of the san Francisco bay and Sacramento - san joaquin river Delta system and is capable of simulating tides and currents. Formation of San Francisco bay from the bay model Visitor Center (all ages this web page provides a very brief summary of how now San Francisco bay formed and why 85 percent of the bay is less than 30 feet deep. Fly over the seafloor of San Francisco bay from.
Geological Survey (all ages this computer simulated fly-over of San Francisco bay reveals the seafloor from the south and central bay through the golden Gate, as if the bay were drained and one could see its bottom. It pauses over prominent seafloor features including, large sand waves, rock pinnacles, current scour pits, as well as many human impacts on the seafloor. So either I prepay 10/day to the rental car company (wonder if I can just do for the one day we will be passing through) i don't think that's a prepayment, just part of your rental car invoice. But what you want to ask the rental car company is will you only be charged for the day that the toll system was used, or is it 10 per rental day. If it's per rental day, just prepay the actual toll (which you can do online, once you know your license plate) and avoid the rental car system completely. If you think you're confused, imagine all the other visitors who haven't read ta and will have no idea what to do at the bridge when they find they can't pay. I envision at least a few accidents as people slam on brakes or pull over to go into the offices there. The first architectural rendering for a bridge spanning San Francisco bay, unveiled in 1922, was an unmitigated disaster. Awkwardly combining cantilever with suspension bridge elements, the clunky first Golden Gate Bridge plans displayed in The san Francisco Chronicle looked like they were designed by your junior high orthodontist.
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This 6-page list provides an annotated bibliography of resources about the biology, geology, topography, bathymetry, tectonics, earthquakes, tsunamis, groundwater, and and surface water of the bay area. Bay area earthquake hazards from the Great Shakeout (all ages). This web site contains numerous maps and other resources that describe bay area faults and earthquake-induced hazards. 1934 south pier geology report by the golden Gate Bridge building Committee (grades 9 to adult). This is the original report submitted to the board of Directors of the golden Gate Bridge highway district on november 27, 1934 documents reactions. Bailey williss concerns about the geology conditions at the site of the south pier. (The name of the district later became golden Gate Bridge, highway and Transportation District.) (10 MB).
The article is divided into six field trip stops and provides a variety of maps, photos and references as well as a road log. Field Trip guide to the golden Gate Bridge from the california geological Survey (grades 6 to adult). This 38-page document includes three articles: 1) Golden Gate Bridge field guide. Kao, 2) Early geological Observations of the san Francisco bay area. Testa, and 3) the william Phipps Blake report on the geology of the vicinity of San Francisco (1858). Geology and Natural History of the bay area - resources. Geological Survey (grades 5 resume to adult).
Francisco to marin county. Construction Timeline from Golden Gate Bridge, highway and Transportation District (all ages). This provides a summary of the key dates in the design and construction of the Bridge from December 1932 to April 1937. Major Projects on the golden Gate Bridge from Golden Gate Bridge, highway and Transportation District (all ages). This web page summarizes the Bridge improvement projects between 19Golden Gate Bridge Chronology from pbs american Experience (all ages). This timeline chronicles important events in the history of the golden Gate Bridge from 18 when it was declared a wonder of the modern world by the American Society of civil Engineers. Geology and Earthquakes, geology of the golden Gate headlands by william. Elder, national Park service (grades 6 to adult). This 19-page document provides detailed discussion of the geology of the peninsular headlands just north and south of the golden Gate.
Shortly after 1900 the metamorphosis bay regions population had reached a million. The major north-south highway in California, highway 101, needed to span the gate to become a viable statewide transportation artery. In the early decades of the twentieth century, civil engineering made dramatic advances in the design and construction of long-span bridges. A great bridge across the gate, an impossible vision before then, became a challenging possibility. Despite political opposition, scarce funds in the Great Depression that began in 1929, and the immense physical challenges of bridging a mile of water, the people of six counties in northern California voted to finance the golden Gate Bridge. Engineers and construction workers with imagination, courage, and determination then came together to design and build what until then had been considered the bridge that couldnt be built. Learn More, explore this Topic Further, bridge history. Key dates in Bridge history from Golden Gate Bridge, highway and Transportation District (all ages).
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The golden Gate strait is a gap in a mountain range that was cut by an ancient river that passed through what was a dry valley until 10,000 years ago. That was when sea level was over 100 meters lower than today. The melting ice caused by the end of the last ice age raised the level of the sea, and the ocean slowly flowed back thesis up the river canyon to form San Francisco bay. Today, 60 of the rain and snow that falls on the State of California still drains through the golden Gate. The golden Gate strait is the reason for the strong tides, frequent winds, fog, and salt air, all of which posed challenges for building a bridge across. In addition, the infamous San Andreas fault, cause of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, is only 7 miles (11 kilometers) offshore. Native americans lived around San Francisco bay at least 4,000 years ago. Once Spanish explorers discovered the many natural resources of the area and the desirability of the bay as a harbor, they established in 1776 a settlement called Yerba buena, later re-named San Francisco. In 1848, the population of the city was less than 500; in 1849, because of the gold Rush, it was suddenly ten times greater.